Holonic System Model for Resilient Energy Grid Operation

AuthorEgert, Rolf; Grube, Tim; Volk, Florian; Mühlhäuser, Max
TypeJournal Article
AbstractThe transformation of energy grids towards smart grids is driven by numerous political, economic, and ecological goals. As part of this process, the centralized top-down architecture of energy grids changes towards increasingly decentralized structures. It is widely accepted that the challenges emerging from this transition threaten the resilient operation of energy grids. For instance, the volatility of renewable energy sources challenges the required balance between demand and supply; their distribution in the energy grid likewise complicates their coordination. Holarchies are a promising (systems-of-systems) architectural pattern for smart grids fostering fast isolation and self-sustained operation of subparts (so-called holons), as well as supporting dynamic reconfigurations of the grid’s structure. To leverage these properties to increase the resilience of smart grids, we propose a system model that combines a holonic architecture and locally available resources offered by prosumers. Our model organizes the participants in the grid as holarchy and enables the application of fine-grained control mechanisms. We show the capabilities of the model by resolving an overproduction situation and a situation of severe electricity scarcity using a modified binary ant colony optimization approach. Our evaluation with the simulation environment HOLEG shows that the system model and the proposed algorithm can quickly mitigate balancing problems in holonic energy grids.