The Overlapping Effect and Fusion Protocols of Data Augmentation Techniques in Iris PAD

AuthorFang, Meiling; Damer, Naser; Boutros, Fadi; Kirchbuchner, Florian; Kuijper, Arjan
TypeJournal Article
AbstractIris Presentation Attack Detection (PAD) algorithms address the vulnerability of iris recognition systems to presentation attacks. With the great success of deep learning methods in various computer vision fields, neural network-based iris PAD algorithms emerged. However, most PAD networks suffer from overfitting due to insufficient iris data variability. Therefore, we explore the impact of various data augmentation techniques on performance and the generalizability of iris PAD. We apply several data augmentation methods to generate variability, such as shift, rotation, and brightness. We provide in-depth analyses of the overlapping effect of these methods on performance. In addition to these widely used augmentation techniques, we also propose an augmentation selection protocol based on the assumption that various augmentation techniques contribute differently to the PAD performance. Moreover, two fusion methods are performed for more comparisons: the strategy-level and the score-level combination. We demonstrate experiments on two fine-tuned models and one trained from the scratch network and perform on the datasets in the Iris-LivDet-2017 competition designed for generalizability evaluation. Our experimental results show that augmentation methods improve iris PAD performance in many cases. Our least overlap-based augmentation selection protocol achieves the lower error rates for two networks. Besides, the shift augmentation strategy also exceeds state-of-the-art (SoTA) algorithms on the Clarkson and IIITD-WVU datasets.