|Piatkowski, Nico; Müller-Römer, Johannes; Hasse, Peter; Bachorek, Adam; Werner, Tim; Birnstill, Pascal; Morgenstern, Andreas; Stobbe, Lutz
|Extrapolations predict that the sheer number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices will exceed 40 billion in the next five years. Hand-crafting specialized energy models and monitoring sub-systems for each type of device is error prone, costly, and sometimes infeasible. In order to detect abnormal or faulty behavior as well as inefficient resource usage autonomously, it is of tremendous importance to endow upcoming IoT and 5G devices with sufficient intelligence to deduce an energy model from their own resource usage data. Such models can in-turn be applied to predict upcoming resource consumption and to detect system behavior that deviates from normal states. To this end, we investigate a special class of undirected probabilistic graphical model, the so-called integer Markov random fields (IntMRF). On the one hand, this model learns a full generative probability distribution over all possible states of the system-allowing us to predict system states and to measure the probability of observed states. On the other hand, IntMRFs are themselves designed to consume as less resources as possible-e.g., faithful modelling of systems with an exponentially large number of states, by using only 8-bit unsigned integer arithmetic and less than 16KB memory. We explain how IntMRFs can be applied to model the resource consumption and the system behavior of an IoT device and a 5G core network component, both under various workloads. Our results suggest, that the machine learning model can represent important characteristics of our two test systems and deliver reasonable predictions of the power consumption.